Descriptive Sentence structure of English language
WSJO 2010/2011 – Yr 2
Vowels – standard characteristics (8)
1 . 2 . Definition of a vowel – the type of audio, depending generally on incredibly slight versions of tongue position, which can be most quickly described regarding auditory human relationships, since there is no constriction which we are able to feel with any precision. Characteristic features: • generally voiced • produced with unimpeded airflow • zero noise component but a characteristic patterning of formants • created using egressive airstream trailers • mid-air escapes in the central distinctive line of the tongue • designed by this sort of movable bodily organs as the tongue, the lips plus the velum An outline of vowel-like sounds must include: • the part of the tongue which is raised (FRONT, CENTRAL BACK) and the amount of raising (HIGH, MID, LOW) • the type of aperture created by the lips (SPREAD, FAIRLY NEUTRAL, ROUNDED) • the position from the soft palate (ORAL, NASAL) Issues of information: • situation of the tongue – tactile sensation can be not beneficial > normally no get in touch with of the tongue with the roof top of the mouth • amount of raising – how many millimeters from the palate? • vowel noises form a continuum • relating the vowel top quality to a worth in a particular language > not useful either The Cardinal Vowel Scale (Daniel Jones)
three or more.
Figure 1 . The primary primary vowels (left) and the second cardinal vowels (right) (after Ashby and Maidment 2006: 78). 6. The classification of vowel type rotules: • excessive, mid-high, mid-low, low (or close, half-close, half-open, low) • front side, central, back again • pass on, neutral, backside • quality vs . volume • brief vs . lengthy (inherent and relative length) • locker vs . anxious (open and closed syllables) The English vowels – the vowel chart (Wells 2008: xxiii-xxv):